Composer:Witold Lutosławski; Original title: Sacher Variation na wiolonczelę solo ; year of completion: ; instrumentation: cello solo; commission: Mścisław. Written as a 70th birthday tribute to Paul Sacher and based on the letters of his name. The work was requested by Mstislav Rostropovich, who gave the first. Witold Lutoslawski: Sacher Variation For Solo Cello Music Sales America Series Written as a 70th birthday tribute to Paul Sacher and based on the letters of his.

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It will variationw seen that Lutoslawski, who excludes serial techniques and works with extremely limited pitch material, provides the formal development through a mechanical system and also uses the looseness as a formal element beside the organization.

It is not, as its title might suggest, in variation form, but a piece in which a six-note sequence gradually comes to the fore and takes precedence over other ideas which, besides being of an entirely different nature, are lutoslawki to the remaining six notes of the chromatic scale and their neighbouring quarter-tones.

Beginning with 1 as the numerical quantity of the first phrase, the number of the notes in each sachet of the following phrases is determined by the sum of the rotation number and the numerical quantity of the former phrase. In sections of this strand there emerge successive, increasingly long fragments sounded loudly, as if they were chanted. While the first phrase of the Thread I, which is located at the very beginning of the score, contains only one note E flatthere are two notes in the second A and Cand four notes in the third phrase B, E, D, and E flat.

The Sacher hexachord Forte number: Witold Variahions, Maciej Mlodawski. Thanks to succession of contrasting elements without ceasing, the work never loses its vitality while it constantly maintains its mechanic development.

The pitches of the Thread II divided into phrases. The octave registers of the pitches has not taken into consideration in this stage. The two developmental processes related to the hexachord, namely the gradual extension of the phrases of Thread I and the progression of the hexachord from the lowest to vadiations highest register of the violoncello throughout the work, should not be considered as technics applied particularly to the hexachord. Through his approach based on derivation, Holliger represents a completely opposite way of compos- ing and derives the pitch material of the whole work except the first section from the Sacher hexachord see Usman a: This progress continues in the same way until the ninth phrase.

In addition to that, these pitches are emphasized through the insistent repetition at the end of the second, third, fourth, sixth, and eighth phrases. Neue Musik seit [New Music since ] 3rd edition. In Example 6, the pitches that the phrases 11 “The piece ends in a rather amusing way.

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Towarzystwo im. Witolda Lutosławskiego

This developmental process is ordered according to the system shown in Example 4, which is not based on a precise cause-and-effect rela- tionship as we have seen in Table 1. Sacher Variation differs from all the other works of Luotlaswki since his Jeux Venitiens ofin that it contains no aleatory passages.

There is one more phrase of Thread I to be found in the last staff of the score, which includes three complete presentation of the Sacher hexachord. The differences between the two threads of the work are given in Table 2 altogether. The note which is transposed is always the lowest sounding pitch of the particular presentation of the hexachord.

A, C, H the German name of the pitch class Band E; and there are two letters that do not indicate any specific pitch classes by themselves: Sections belonging to both strands gradually become longer. However, the last necessary transposition for achieving the initial arrangement of the row three octave higher, namely the transposition of the note B by an octave in the non-existent 19th presentation of the row, does not take place.

The differences between the two threads of the work. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. The principle which the increase of the numerical quantity of the phrases is based on. Update Required To play the media you will need to either update your browser to a recent version or update your Flash plugin. This robust structure allows very diverse musical elements to exist together.

Analysis of lutoslwaski Work2 The pitch material of the work is divided into two sections: In reply to the systematic progression of the pitches of the Sacher hex- achord from the lowest to the highest register of the violoncello in Thread I, Thread II progresses from a higher register to the lowest. The rhythmic order of the phrases of Thread I. Another contrast between the formations are observed in the organiza- tion of the pitch material.

Serial Composition and Atonality 6th edition. The increase in the numerical quantity of the notes in the phrases is based on the simple principle shown in Lutoslaski 1.

Repeated again and again, it creates a long sequence of notes. However, unlike some of these examples, the row in Example 2 has nothing to do with the concept hexachordal combinatoriality, which describes a particular construction of the twelve-tone row that consists of two hexachords which have in terms of the set theory the same prime forms, which means that the two hexachords are unchanged, inverted, or retrograded transpositions of each other see Cope Besides that, vaariations musical thread processes its material on its very own way.

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Witold Lutosławski

Example 3 below shows the first four lines of the score. Skip to main content. For instance, the very first note is E flat Esbut there is a gap before the A and C are reached and another one afterwards. Metamorphoses for cello and piano.

The phrases, which consist only of the note values of quaver and semi- quaver, are rhythmically in order, as well. The work bases its existence mainly on the aural world that is a result of this derivation.

Ninateka – Three composers – Sacher Variation for cello solo

Discography – Sacher Variation for solo cello. The Sacher hexachord is nothing but the subject of these technics. The percep- tion of the opposite directions of the threads, the changes in the number of the notes each phrase contains, and the individuality of lutkslawski threads becomes possible only through the restriction of the pitch material development.

Since these pitches are used for the colouring and embellishment, they are not included in the analysis. Ten of the twelve compositions, namely all variaitons with the exception of those of Berio and Henze, were performed by Rostropovich himself on May 2,in Zurich, Switzerland Dunnagan His aleatory technique is essentially a sachrr one that gives performers a limited degree of freedom in the precise placing of notes in time.

Although the mere repetition of the pitch material without any derivation, Lutoslawski has succeeded in creating a development that continues throughout the work by means of a simple but highly effective mechanism. Contemporary Music Review, 2: Continue using the site as normal variatios read our Privacy Policy. In this way, the melody and accompaniment functions, which are highlighted through the use of the instruments that aurally differ from each other, are also supported in regard to the pitches see Vogt These processes do not cause any transformation of the hexachord except the change of the octave register, and nor the acquired result is determined by the hexachord.

A possible dacher for this is that the composer regarded the pitch A two octave above the first open string as the highest limit because it was undesirable for the composer to enter into a register where the characteristic timbre of the violoncello would not be present any more.