The author of the moving document, Leo Freundlich ( – ), was a Jewish Leo Freundlich, for his part, after the publication of ‘Albania’s Golgotha’ in , [Taken from Albaniens Golgotha: Anklageakten gegen die Vernichter des. Albaniens Golgatha by, , J. Roller edition, in German. Cover of: Albaniens Golgatha | gesammelt und hrsg. von Leo Freundlich. Albaniens Golgatha: Anklageakten Gegen Die Vernichter Des Albanervolkes ( Classic Reprint) (German Edition) [Leo Freundlich] on *FREE*.

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The Ottoman Empire, greundlich had ruled Kosova for five centuries, was in disarray. Filling the vacuum, Serb troops invaded the territory to claim and occupy it for Serbia, and to cleanse it of its Albanian population. The author of the moving document, Leo Freundlich -was a Jewish publicist living in Vienna.

The following is known about him. Freundlich was born of a wealthy Jewish family in Bielitz-Biala in the then Austro-Hungarian Empire now Bielsko-Biala in southern Freundllch and was early to develop a passion for the ideals of socialism.

Now with two children, Hertha and GertrudEmmy and Leo Freundlich were both politically active, participated in the founding of the cooperative Konsumverein, and gave public lectures in the cause of socialist advancement. Leo Freundlich also edited the left-wing newspaper ‘Volkswacht’, in which his attacks against the Catholic Church got him into trouble, at one point even three weeks in jail.

With the newspaper and the Konsumverein facing financial difficulties, he was forced to resign from the Reichsrat in after the defeat of the German socialists in northern Bohemia.

Shortly thereafter, the couple divorced in Merano in southern Tyrolia, and had no more contact with one another, although Leo maintained links with his children, whom he visited regularly. With her contacts among leading Social Democrats in Vienna such as Karl Renner, Emmy Freundlich went on freundlihc become a noted writer and political figure of the Austrian cooperative movement, and president of the International Cooperative Women’s Guild Leo Freundlich, for his part, after the publication of ‘Albania’s Golgotha’ inhad first direct contacts with Albania as a soldier with Austro-Hungarian forces in the country albaneins World War I.

In this capacity, in wlbaniens s, he was involved in promoting Albania’s trade relations with the German Reich. It is reported that, when confronted with the Nazi salute ‘Heil Hitler’, which he despised, he would respond with a sarcastic ‘Heil Zogu’ salute, and would amuse himself at seeing the confusion of his German counterparts, who believed this to be a standard Albanian greeting.

When life in Vienna became intolerable for the Jews, Freundlich moved to Switzerland, where freundilch headed the Albanian mission to the League of Nations in Geneva. albahiens

Inhis children were also forced to flee Vienna and initially took refuge with their father in Geneva, before carrying on gopgatha London and America. Leo Freundlich, who had married a second time, remained in Geneva during the Second World War, where he lived in relative poverty and was supported financially by his children. On the eastern banks of the Adriatic, a mere three days journey from Vienna, live an autochthonous people who for centuries have been fighting for their freedom and independence against enemies aalbaniens oppressors of all types.

This nation has clung steadfast to its roots through countless wars and the cataclysms of history. Neither the great migrations nor wars with the Serbs, the Turks and other invaders have hindered the Albanians from maintaining their nationality, their language, and the purity and originality of their customs. The history of this nation albahiens an unbroken chain of bloody battles against violent oppressors, but not even the most unspeakable of atrocities have managed to annihilate this people.

Intellectual life has flourished among the Albanians even though their oppressors endeavoured to cut off all cultural development at the root. This nation produced great generals and men of state for the Ottoman Empire.

Albanians were among the best judges in Turkey and among the greatest authors of Turkish literature. Almost all the merchants of Montenegro were Albanian, as were many fine businessmen in the major cities freundloch Romania.


The Albanians played an important role in Italy, too. Crispi was one of them. Greece’s bravest soldiers were of Albanian blood. In the wake of the cataclysms wrought by the Balkan War, the ancient dream of freedom and independence for this people is now becoming a reality.

The Great Powers of Abaniens have decided to grant Albania its national autonomy. But the Serbian thirst for conquest has now found a means of destroying the fair dream of this courageous and freedom-loving people before it can be realized. Serbian troops have invaded Albania with fire and sword.

And if Albania glgatha be conquered, then at least the Albanian people can be exterminated. This is the solution they propose. Things got so far out of hand that no one was satisfied with the situation in Turkey in Europe. It became unbearable for the Serbs, the Greeks and for the Albanians, too. By the grace of God, I have therefore ordered my brave army to join in the Holy War to free our brethren and to ensure a better freundlivh. In Old Serbia, my army will meet not only upon Christian Serbs, but also upon Moslem Serbs, who are equally dear to us, and in addition to them, upon Christian and Moslem Albanians with whom our people have shared joy and sorrow for thirteen centuries now.

To all of them we bring freedom, brotherhood and equality. How have the Serbs understood the declaration of their monarch, which is not even half a year old? The thousand and thousands of men, women, children and old people who have been slain or tortured to death, the villages marauded and burnt to the ground, the women and young girls who have been raped, and the countryside plundered, ravaged and swimming in blood can give no answer to this question.

The Serbs came to Albania not as liberators but as exterminators of the Albanian people. The Ambassadors’ Conference in London proposed drawing the borders of Albania albaniene to ethnic and religious statistics to be gathered on site by a commission.

The Serbs have hastened to prepare the statistics for them with machine guns, rifles and bayonets. They have frundlich unspeakable atrocities. The frwundlich and outrage produced by these crimes are outdone only by the sense of sorrow that such vile deeds could be committed in Europe, not far from the great centres of western culture, in this twentieth century.

Our sorrow is made all the heavier by the fact that, despite the reports which have been cabled home for months albanjens by the journalists of many nations, and albamiens the impassioned indictment launched albanlens the world by Pierre Loti, nothing has been done to put an end to the killings. A courageous albaaniens full of character is being crucified before the eyes of the world and Europe, civilized Christian Europe, remains silent! Tens frrundlich thousands of defenceless people are being massacred, women are being raped, old people and children strangled, hundreds of villages burnt to the ground, priests slaughtered.

Serbia and Montenegro have set out to conquer a foreign country. But in that land live a freedom-loving, brave people who despite centuries of servitude have not yet become accustomed to bearing a foreign yoke.

The solution is freundljch. The Albanians must be exterminated!

A crazed and savage soldateska has turned this solution into a gruesome reality. Countless villages have been razed to the ground, countless individuals have been butchered. Where once the humble cottages of poor Albanians stood, there is nothing left but smoke and ashes. A whole people is perishing on Calvary cross, and Europe remains silent! The golgathaa of this work is to rouse the conscience of European public opinion. The reports gathered here are but a small portion of the material available.

More than what they contain is already known by the governments of Europe from official consular and press reports.

Albania’s Golgotha – Wikipedia

Up to now, however, the governments have chosen to remain silent. Now, any further silence means complicity. The Great Powers must tell the crazed barbarians once and for all to keep their ‘Hands off! An international commission must be set up to investigate accusations made against the Serbian government.


Most important of all, Serbian and Montenegrin troops must withdraw from Albanian territory at once and the Greek blockade, which has cut the country off from all food supplies, must be lifted. I call upon the governments of the Great Powers, I call upon European public opinion in the name of humanity, in the name of civilization, in the name of the wretched Albanian people.

I turn to the British public, to the nation which raised its voice so virtuously to protest against the Armenian massacres. I direct my appeal to the French public which has shown so often that it will defend humanity and human rights.

Texts and Documents of Albanian History

A poor nation, suffering a horrible fate, appeals from the cross for help. Will Europe hear its call? In connection with the news report that unarmed Albanians of the Luma tribe were executed in Prizren without trial, the Frankfurter Zeitung writes: In the case in question, it seems gopgatha have been regular Serbian troops who committed the massacre.

But there is no doubt whatsoever that even the heinous massacres committed by irregulars were carried out with the tacit approval and in full compliance with the will of the Serbian authorities.

As a result, we regard it as our duty to expose the intentions of the Serbian rulers. The gentlemen in Belgrade will then indignantly deny everything, knowing full well that journalistic propriety prevents us from mentioning names. It is evident that we would not make such a report if we were not fully convinced of its truth. In the case in question, the facts speak louder than any full confession could do. One massacre after another has been committed since Serbian troops crossed golgathz border last autumn and occupied the land inhabited by the Albanians.

Professor Schiemann published an article in Kreuzzeitungwriting: The Daily Chronicle reported on 12 November that it was true that thousands of Arnauts Albanians had been lro by the Serbs. Many villages have been set on fire and their inhabitants slaughtered. Albanian householders were simply slain during house to house searches for arms, even when no weapons were found. The Serbs declared quite openly that the Moslem Albanians were to be exterminated because this was the only way of pacifying the country.

The war correspondent of the Messaggero of Rome reported heinous Serbian massacres of Albanians in the vilayet of Kosovo.

Albaniens Golgatha ( edition) | Open Library

After the town was taken, the Serbian commander ordered its fleeing inhabitants to return peacefully and lay down their arms. When they returned, three or four hundred people were massacred. Destitute Serbian families hastened to take possession of the homes of the wealthy families. The report described the activities of the Serbs in Albania: The number of Albanian villages totally or partially but systematically destroyed by the Serbs was estimated at thirty-one.

They were then let out and slain, one by one. Thirty-four of the ninety-eight villages in the district of Kavadarci have been destroyed.

The Turks, some of whom had made payoffs to one guerrilla band hoping to save their lives, were then butchered by another band of guerrillas. Between this village and Palikura, a number of graves were found with the heads sticking out of the earth. These are the graves of wretched individuals who were buried alive!

Fritz Magnussen, war correspondent for the Danish newspaper Rigetwho is generally known for his pro-Serbian sympathies, described the crimes committed by the Serbs against the Arnaut population in a telegramme that he had to send by special courier from Skopje to Zemun to avoid the rigorous censorship:.

Serbian military activities in Macedonia have taken on the character of an extermination of the Arnaut population. The army is conducting an unspeakable war of atrocities. The Arnaut villages were surrounded and set on fire.

The inhabitants were then chased from their homes and shot like rats. The Serbian soldiers delighted in telling me of the manhunts they had conducted.