O setor de saneamento no Brasil tem demonstrado força e flexibilidade diante das dificuldades . Em janeiro de , o Presidente Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva assinou uma nova lei federal de água e saneamento (Lei /07 para o. 25 set. Four decades later, the enactment of Federal Law of 05/01/, which .. LEONELLI, G. C. V. A construção da lei federal de parcelamento do solo urbano . Institui a Política Nacional de Saneamento e cria. Passados nove anos da Lei do Saneamento, que define as diretrizes to the National Plan for Basic Sanitation (PlanSab) based on Law No 11,/ —.
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Qualitative research provides more profound research about a given situation Cooper and Schindler,and this is why we have applied it in order to understand the components and attributes of sanitation.
For the municipality groupings, we have adopted the city typology as suggested by Meijering, Kern and Tobiavoiding the comparison of municipalities that have different characteristics.
Increasing international initiatives employ lsi indicators to measure the performance of cities, saneament them and use them to influence national and international political discussions.
Como citar este artigo.
The concept of adequate sanitation was also defined through a thematic content analysis of the principles of the Sanitation Law, which have been grouped by these themes, forming the attributes of box 2. Ecological Indicatorsv.
Thematic content analysis of the Sanitation Law confirmed four components: To summarize these characteristics, we applied factor analysis using R, which analyzes a group of variables to identify its latent dimensions. It may be noted saneamenro the municipalities not included in the analysis due to a sajeamento of data did not significantly affect the representativeness of the sample, given that the proportions were maintained.
Saneamento no Brasil
Practical Perspectives Sanitation indicators: Final considerations This study demonstrates the need for data to evaluate sanitation in a complete manner, considering the concept of adequate sanitation.
Even though the indicators make decision making possible, this study saneamenro not sought to evaluate the impact of the program or sanitation policy.
The second form of analysis is the value saneamenyo each of the factors. Adapted from Giovannini and collaborators and Meijering, Kern and Tobi The degree to which the results can be generalized was tested by dividing the sample randomly into two sub-samples and the results of the Varimax rotation loads, the commonalities, and the factor structure proved to be stable, because there was no representative load of the variable in other factors.
According to Kern apud Meijering, Kern and Tobi,one tool that has often been used to influence national and international political discussions is the European green city rankings.
This study demonstrates the need for data to evaluate sanitation in a complete manner, considering the concept of adequate sanitation. Indicators for monitoring water, sanitation, and hygiene: Se monitoring sanitation in the municipalities, public administration can plan specific actions, establish performance and quality metrics, and orient public policies.
Indicadores de saneamento: uma análise de variáveis para elaboração de indicadores municipais
In this sense, different weights were not attributed due to theoretical importance; equal weights were considered for all of sneamento factors. To do this, it will be necessary to monitor the sanitation situation in municipalities to determine the dimensions of the effort and resources necessary.
As far as opportunities are concerned, this methodology can be applied to other states in future studies, and there is a need for greater breadth in terms of indicators to monitor adequate sanitation services in these municipalities. The municipalities selected for the analysis were those which possessed a majority of the information related to the four components of basic sanitation, this being a sample that conveniently represents The sample consisted of observations the quantity of municipalities and 92 variables, equivalent to a ratio of 5: In terms of the sample size, according to Hair and collaboratorsthere need to be more observations than variables, with the minimum acceptable ratio being 5: Identifying the methodological characteristics of European green city rankings.
There is also a sanitation ranking initiative that has been undertaken by sansamento government of India.
International Journal of Sociology and Anthropologyv. Even though FA is generally just for metric variables, Hair and collaborators consider it acceptable to include a small number of dichotomic variables among the metric variables analyzed by factors.
To aggregate the factor scores by geometric average, we had to normalize the factor scores to avoid negative values. After nine years of the Sanitation Law that defines the national guidelines in this area, it dw still necessary to clarify the elements characterizing basic sanitation, and seek tools that enable monitoring sanitation in municipalities.
Table 2 shows the quantities of the state szneamento and their respective typologies as well as those of the sample. The strong points of the elaborated sanitation indicators are: A study of sanitation leii toilets in elementary and senior Secondary schools located in rural areas of Uttarakhand state in India.
The normalization was performed based on taking the lowest factor score and summing the other values. Based on these themes, the indicators were selected to understand the correlated structure formed by them.
Plos Medicinev. In total, the factors explain Handbook on constructing composite indicators: In terms of the weighting, in FA the weighting intervenes to correct the overlapping of information between two or more correlated indicators and does not measure the theoretical importance associated with the indicator Giovannini et al. Abstract After nine years of the Sanitation Law that defines the national guidelines in this area, it is still necessary to clarify the elements characterizing basic sanitation, and seek tools that enable monitoring sanitation in municipalities.
Introduction In Brazil there are roughly 3. The results show three indicators that compose a municipal index and indicate the need for data to fully evaluate sanitation. In terms of the aggregation of the factors, we opted for the geometric average due to facility of applying it and to reduce, at least partially, the problem of it being a compensatory technique.