It has sometimes been erroneously compared to the fief of medieval Europe. The iqṭāʿ system was established in the 9th century ad to relieve the state treasury. The iqtadari was a unique type of land distribution and administrative system evolved during the Sultanate per~od. Under the system, the whole. Meaning of the Iqta system: ‘Iqta’ is an Arabic word denoting a sort of administrative regional unit. It is usually considered equivalent to a province. Initially the.

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The grants later became nuclei out of which petty principalities grew with the decline of the central power. Later, under Firoz Shah Tughlaq it became hereditary. When the revenue has been realized from them, those subjects should remain secure from any demands of the muqtis in respect of their persons, wealth, families,lands and goods.

Administration of India under the Delhi Sultanate

Under Iqta System, the land of the empire was iata into several large and small tracts called Iqta and assigned these Iqtas to his soldiers, officers and nobles. Contrary to most other forms of Iqta, it was hereditary, but the land was divided when there were more sons of age.

It is thus clear that the muqtis only hold the land under the king, the land in truth belongs to the Sultan. Also, Iqtas were not hereditary by law and had to be confirmed by a higher authority like the systeem or the king. Expansion and consolidation of the sultanates territory and security was the main aim of Alauddin.


The lack of sources for itqa Saiyyid dynasty leads to our complete lack of information regarding the iqta system under them. Muqti combined the function of revenue collector, administrator, pay master and the military commander.

Iqta System

Slavery, condition in which one zystem being was owned by another. The Buyids codified the already existent system of tax farming. Contact our editors with your feedback. The crucial element in this mechanism was the iqta that combined the two functions of collection and distribution without immediately endangering the unity of the political structure.

Name of the Schools: The lOazir was the chief minister of the state. The process of centralization as a clear policy was implemented under Balban. His absolutist rule concentrated zystem limiting the power of the estates mainly the nobility and merchants and securing his supreme authority as the king. The iqtas could be big whole province or small.

He had a council of trusted advisers, called majlis-i-khaiwat which he consulted on important occasions but he was not bound to accept its decision. Muhammad of Ghur was the first to introduce the iqta system in India, but it was lltutrnish who gave it an institutional form. The provinces were also called iqtas. Thank you for your feedback. Views Read Edit View history.


The holders of large Iqta were the sysem governors, who had some administrative responsibilities also. The sultans were head of state, not religion, but their duty was to observe the Shariat in matters of state. sgstem

Amir Khusarau, for the first time, referred to Khuts as Zamindars. Irfan Habib has chosen to see iqha history of Delhi through the administration of Iqta.

Khat, muqaddam and patwari were the main village functionaries. The muqti was eystem to have any territorial possessions of his own though he could sub-assign Iqtas from within his territory to anyone he chose.

Iqṭāʿ | Islamic land grant |

The organisation of the government was feudal in character. The Sultans of Delhi did not follow any law of succession. A m1’shrif was in charge of accounts and revenue at the pargana level.

The iqtas were transferable, i. The subordinates than followed the same practice for their troops. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica.