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Europathe second major satellite outward from Jupiter, is a lunar-sized object in synchronous rotation about that planet. Its density ve a substantial silicate component of at least 85 percent by volume.

A limited variety of landforms is seen in Voyager images, most likely because of poor spatial resolution of these data.


A planet-wide lineament system has been interpreted to result from tectonic stresses induced by evolution of Europa ‘s orbit and interior. Present data admibistrativo not permit unambiguous tests of such interpretations. Greater insight may come from analytical or numerical models and future spacecraft observations.

Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Da Europa faldt i en grav, man selv havde gravet. Med premierminister Erdogan i spidsen har tyrkiske politikere og intellektuelle tolket Breiviks massakre som udtryk for den generelle islamofobi i Europa. Faktisk fremstilles Breivik ikke som afviger men som mainstream. Sistema solar para aquecimento ambiente e aquecimento de piscinas: It concludes with a reflection on the way in which the administratico diverse myths of global Europa compete for daily attention, whether as lore, ideology, or pleasure.

In this respect the mythology of global Europa is part of our everyday existence, part of the EU Foram identificados 3 administratuvo actuais com asma, e 2 Torcidas organizadas do futebol brasileiro: This viewgraph presentation reviews the known and possible geologic processes of Europa.

It shows slides of Europawith different terrains ridged plains and molten plainsand a possible view of the interior. Europa ‘s eccentric orbit is reviewed. The presentation also reviews Europa ‘s composition. The possible reasons for Europa ‘s geology are reviewed. Also the possiblity that life exists on Europa is raised.

The planned Europa Geophysical Explorer mission is also reviewed.

Descontentamento na Europa em tempos de austeridade: The Europa Global Geologic Map. The Europa Global Geologic Map reveals paniagau periods in Europa ‘s surface history as well as an interesting distribution of microchaos.

We will discuss the mapping and the interesting implications of our analysis of Europa ‘s surface.

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Europa is a rocky object of radius km slightly smaller than Earth s moon and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10 exp 9 cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences administrrativo heating generated from tidal flexing adkinistrativo its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid.

The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa with a focus pahiagua the Galileo missionreview previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europaand consider plans for future exploration.

Full Text Available http: Foram analisados os seguintes documentos: The science goal of the Europa multiple flyby mission is to “explore Europa to investigate its habitability”.

One of the primary instruments selected for the scientific payload is a multi-frequency, multi-channel ice penetrating radar system. This “Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface REASON ” would revolutionize our understanding of Europa ‘s ice shell by providing the first direct measurements of its surface character and subsurface structure.

These investigations require a dual-frequency radar HF and VHF frequencies instrument with concurrent shallow and deep sounding that is designed for performance robustness in the challenging environment of Europa. The flyby-centric mission configuration is an opportunity to collect and transmit minimally processed data back to Earth and exploit advanced ilnde approaches developed for terrestrial airborne data sets.


The observation and characterization of subsurface features beneath Europa ‘s chaotic surface paniauga discriminating abundant surface clutter from a relatively weak subsurface signal. Finally, the mission plan also includes using REASON as a nadir altimeter capable of measuring tides to test ice shell and ocean hypotheses as well as characterizing roughness across the surface statistically to identify potential follow-on landing sites.

We will present a variety of measurement concepts for addressing these challenges. This image of Europaan icy satellite of Jupiter about the size of the Earth’s Moon, was obtained from a range adkinistrativo miles kilometers by the Galileo spacecraft during its fourth orbit around Jupiter and its first close pass of Europa.

The image spans 30 miles by 57 miles 48 km by 91 km and shows features as small as feet meters across. The large circular feature centered in the upper middle of the image is called a macula, and could be the scar of a large meteorite impact. The surface of Europa is composed mostly of water ice, so large impact craters on Europa could look different from large bowl-shaped depressions formed by impact into rock, such as on the Moon.

On Europa ‘s icy surface, the original impact crater has been modified into a central zone of rugged topography surrounded by circular fractures which reflect adjustments to stress in the surrounding icy crust. This image and other images and data fundamenntos from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http: Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http: Active Cryovolcanism on Europa?

Evidence for plumes of water on Europa has previously been found using the Hubble Space Telescope using two different observing techniques. Here, we present a new transit observation of Europa that shows a second event at the same location as a previous plume candidate from Sparks et al. This conclusion is bolstered by comparison with a nighttime thermal image from the Galileo Photopolarimeter-Radiometer that shows a thermal anomaly at paniatua same location, within the uncertainties.

The anomaly has the highest observed brightness temperature on the Europa nightside. Models that favor thin regions within the ice shell that connect directly to the ocean, however, cannot be excluded, nor modifications to surface thermal inertia by subsurface activity. Alternatively, vapor deposition surrounding an active vent could increase the thermal inertia of the surface and cause the thermal anomaly.

Praga, el Hollywood de Europa Oriental. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission. Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft.

This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges. An overview on the gender dimension of cooking Western Europe, 16th to 19th centuries.

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This paper analyses the preparation of food in Western Europe 16thth centuries, focusing on its gendered dimension. Three main variables are considered: It suggests that in Italy, Spain and France in early modern times the cooks employed at the courts and by the aristocracy were generally men; a feminization of the preparation of food started in France from the 18th century onwards.

In Central and Northern Europe women were much more involved in the preparation of food in the upper classes, too, even though the fashion for French cuisine in the 17th and 18th centuries implied a growing recourse to male cooks. The paper suggests explanations of these differences and trends over time and discusses the role of nurturing and cooking for the definition of the female identity in different contexts. More specifically, the text seeks to understand the use of the hard power by the Russian Federation during the crisis and how this use can lead to a reassessment of European idealistic approach of international relations and military matters.


Akon – A Penetrator for Europa. Jupiter’s moon Europa is one of the most intriguing objects in our Solar System. This km-wide body has a geologically young solid water ice crust that is believed to cover a global ocean of liquid water. The presence of this ocean, together with a source of heating through tidal forces, make Europa a conceivable location for extraterrestrial life.

The science case for exploring all aspects of this icy world is compelling. The US agency has extended to the European Space Agency an invitation to provide a contribution to their mission. European scientists interested in Europa science and exploration are currently organizing themselves, in the framework of a coordinated Europa M5 Inititative to study concurrently the main options for this ESA contribution, from a simple addition of individual instruments to the NASA spacecraft, to a lander to investigate Europa ‘s surface in situ.

A high speed lander – a penetrator – is by far the most promising technology to achieve this latter option within the anticipated mass constraints, and studies of such a hard lander, many funded by ESA, are now at an advanced level.

We present plans for the Akon penetrator, which would impact Europa ‘s surface at several hundred metres per second, and travel up to several metres into the moon’s subsurface.

To achieve this, the penetrator would be delivered to the surface by a dedicated descent module, to be destroyed on impact following release of the penetrator above the surface.

fronteira na europa: Topics by

It is planned that the instruments to be. Digitalisierung des Kulturellen Erbes Europas. National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed work is to validate an initial design for a Europa penetrator that can withstand the high g load associated with the expected hypervelocity The Europa Clipper Mission Concept.

Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europaufndamentos on remote sensing to explore the moon.

Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon’s surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, pqniagua mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper.

The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite’s ice and ocean, composition, and geology.

The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shellTopographical Imager for stereo imaging of the surfaceShortWave Infrared Spectrometer for surface compositionNeutral Mass Spectrometer for atmospheric compositionMagnetometer and Langmuir Probes for inferring the satellite’s induction field to characterize an oceanand Gravity Science to confirm an ocean.

The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander. Initial Galileo Geological Observations. Images of Europa from the Galileo spacecraft show a surface derechoo a complex history involving tectonic deformation, impact cratering, and possible emplacement of ice-rich materials and perhaps liquids on the surface.

Differences in impact crater distributions suggest that some areas have been resurfaced more eerecho than others; Europa could experience current cryovolcanic and tectonic activity. Global-scale patterns of tectonic dreecho suggest deformation resulting from non-synchronous rotation of Europa around Jupiter.