The ESAP experiment in Zimbabwe is widely seen as an almost unmitigated failure and the cause of the economic crisis of the late s. An Introduction to ESAP: Zimbabwe By David Coltart. 31st January Danish Volunteer Service Development Workers Meeting. ESAP’S FABLES II. BY RICHARD SAUNDERS. Richard Saunders is SAR’s Zimbabwe correspondent. Zimbabwe’s Economic Structural Adjustment Programme.

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What ESAP actually is, including its main components; Why it was initiated; The implementation of the programme in zimbabws light of the budget and other legislation passed and about to be passed in Zimbabwe. But though the state may be “smaller” in terms of personnel, it is not necessarily more efficient.

Growth was poor, employment contracted, zimbabbwe industrial firms, notably in textiles and footwear closed, and conditions in the communal areas deteriorated as did social services for the poor.

This was supposed to lead to a rapid expansion in growth, employment and exports. Two contradictory policy regimes have been tried since Structural changes brought on by the reforms resulted in improvements. Social dimensions The program’s social dimensions of adjustment SDA component was to address the transitional hardships brought on by the proposed civil service downsizing, the removal of maize meal subsidy to poor urban consumers, and the reinforcement or introduction of health and education fees.

According to him, progress has been made on monetary policy zijbabwe and the reduction of the budget deficit, although Government is still behind zkmbabwe on its plans to cut down the size of the civil service.

Moreover, its consequences were increased unemployment rate. Land Reform In Zimbabwe Lecturer: This suggests that restoring the old controls would not be enough to overcome the current breakdown. Declining conditions of work and uncompetitive pay have chased many better-skilled public servants out of government, feeding a growing popular perception that government’s main economic policy is being driven by “foreign experts. Social cuts and their consequences The primary response to the continued government deficit and climbing debt servicing was increased pressure to cut real spending on public services, including the cost of overall government administration itself.

Heavy public sector demand crowded-out private sector borrowing, and kept real interest rates punishingly high. In terms of the Bill, Government seeks to designate certain land which will be expropriated at prices determined by Government.

Turning to the Zimbabwean dollar. It retained Smith-era controls that guaranteed cheap credit and protected domestic industry from foreign competition. Others, however, believe that drought and failure to implement ESAP reforms effectively were responsible. The climate of uncertainty that ensued delayed the supply response and contributed to a worsening of living conditions for the poor. This caused a sharp rise in interest rates just as local firms faced greater foreign competition.


Cattle, ticks and climate change…be warned and prepared. To illustrate what I mean one must just imagine the situation which can result where large foreign currency loans are incurred and thereafter squandered through mismanagement, corruption and misdirection.

ESAP in Zimbabwe came as a result of the lame economy that the new government inherited and the inappropriate economic policies adopted at independence Makoni What is clear from this account is that no progress will be possible in Zimbabwe until a new regime emerges that is willing to honour its commitments and adopt policies designed to benefit the whole of Zimbabwean society, rather than its own supporters. There must be a gradual progression towards allowing people to import what they want.

Party Two deals with housing and Zimbabwean construction finance both prior and after ESAP, comparison with other African countries is reviewed-positive impacts of liberalizing a sophisticated financial sector, limited impact in attracting foreign investment and negative impact of reduced government investment on the housing construction industry.

By dismantling many of the economic controls, the reforms established a better basis for selfsustaining growth. Anti -social dimensions of adjustment To offset any negative impact of ESAP on poorer Zimbabwean households and retrenched public sector workers, government introduced the Social Development Fund SDF to assist poor households with school fees, health fees and food money subsidies.

The important question to be asked when considering structural adjustment in Zimbabwe is the following: How did this happen, and what can be done to prevent it from recurring?

Origins of the Zimbabwe crisis

Large government spending crowded out private investment and fueled inflation, while shortages of imported goods constrained investment and growth. Chipika and others, in their book Effects of Structural Adjustment in Southern Africa, note that although ESAP was accepted as a way of achieving sustained economic growth in many African countries, many economists have dismissed the effects of the structural adjustment and stabilisation programmes as disappointing.

However, economic controls give power to Government. Government and its bankers said the new investment would be focused on modernizing the manufacturing sector which would enable the country to compete in international markets and earn the hard currency needed to pay back ESAP’s underpinning foreign loans. Zimbabwe would spend its way into a new free market on borrowed money. It is a great pleasure to have been asked to address you today, but before commencing I should warn you that not much weight should be attached to what I and Jonathan Moyo have to say today.


This led to an increase in public expenditures, which for most of the s made up 45 percent of the GDP.

Hence conditions brought by ESAP for instance trade liberalisation and deregulation have generated numerous opportunities and gains for agriculture in Zimbabwe other than the increase in prices of imported agricultural inputs to volatility in foreign exchange Tekere Whilst I concede that the CIO also gathers intelligence on enemies of the State which I have no quarrel withits most visible role in Zimbabwe is to report on political renegades.

Zimbabwe’s adjustment program contained the usual collection of Bank-inspired reforms – trade and currency de-regulation, devaluation of the Zimbabwe dollar, movement towards high real interest rates, the lifting of price controls, chopping of “social spending” and removal of consumer subsidies. The bottom line, however, is that for it to work Governments must relinquish a large amount of control over the economy so that the private sector can do the work.

‘ESAP was never ideal for Zim’ | Celebrating Being Zimbabwean

Click here to sign up. Despite this setback, President Robert Mugabe has made strides in the uplifting of the girl-child. The Budget reinforces me in my view that Government is reluctant to give up a large degree of control over Zimbabwean society. And finally, there was the string of large loans and credit facilities from the Bank, the IMF and international donors, aimed at supporting the country’s balance of payments and government’s plans for substantial private sector infrastructural development.

The actual increase therefore of the overall defence budget is Despite all the rhetoric that structural adjustment is a home-grown programme, the fact of the matter is that it is a concoction developed by the International Monetary Fund and organisations like the World Bank.

Speech by David Coltart: An Introduction to ESAP: Zimbabwe 1992

Hence the prognosis should have been good. In that process, it robbed Zimbabweans of the values of family structures as parents left their children in the hands of maids and guardians. Log In Sign Up. Winter is regional director, Africa, for TechnoServe Inc.

Zimbabwe’s Seap Structural Adjustment Programme ESAPlaunched inwas meant to herald a new era of modernised, competitive, export-led industrialisation.