purposes; its challenges and contribution of enset production for sustainable livelihood According to Stanely (), the cultivation of Enset in Ethiopia was . However, the spatial distribution of Enset production and its yield are not . Enset plant yield and assessing kocho production in Ethiopia. Annual national food production in Ethiopia for the years Table 3. Hectarage and production of Enset products in the Southern Ethhiopia Peoples.
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Ensete ventricosumcommonly known as the Ethiopian bananaAbyssinian banana false ethiopizenset or ensete is an herbaceous species of flowering plant in the banana family Musaceae. The name Ensete ventricosum was first published in in the Kew Bulletin, p.
Its synonyms include Musa arnoldiana De Wild. The flowers, which only occur once from the centre of the plant at the end of that plant’s life, are in massive pendant thyrses covered by large pink bracts. The fruits are inedible insipidflavorless  and have hard, black, rounded seeds. After flowering, the plant dies.
It is estimated that 40 to 60 enset plants occupying sq. Due to the long period of time from planting to harvest, plantings need to be staggered over time, to ensure that there is enset available for harvest in every season.
Enset will tolerate drought better than most cereal crops. Wild enset plants are enste from seedswhile most domesticated plants are propagated from suckers. Up to suckers can be produced from just one mother plant. Enset is often intercropped with sorghumalthough the practice amongst the Gedeo people is to intercrop it with coffee. Apart from an Enset plant disease epidemic in —85 which wiped out large parts of the plantations and created the green famine, in the past productiln years major factors were recurrent drought and food shortage together with acute land shortage that forced farmers more and more into consumption of immature plants.
Ensete ventricosum – Wikipedia
Hence farmers were overexploiting their Enset reserves thereby causing gradual losses and disappearance of the false banana as an important household food security reserve. This basically means that a great many people who used to close the food gap with false banana consumption are not able to do so any more, and lacking a viable alternative, have become food insecure and highly vulnerable to climatic and economic disruptions of their agricultural system.
The young and tender tissues in the centre or heart of the plant the growing point are cooked and eaten, being tasty and nutritious and very like the core of palms and cycads. Fermenting these pulverised parts results in a food called kocho. Bulla is made from the liquid squeezed out of the mixture and sometimes eaten as a porridge, while the remaining solids are suitable for consumption after a settling period of some days.
Mixed kocho and bulla can be kneaded into dough, then flattened and baked over a fire. Kocho is in places regarded as a delicacy, suitable for serving at feasts and ceremonies such as weddings, when wheat flour is added. The fresh corm is cooked like potatoes before eating. The plant is quick-growing and often cultivated as an ornamental plant. In frost-prone areas it requires winter protection under glass. A good quality fibre, suitable for ropes, twine, baskets, and general weaving, is obtained from the leaves.
Dried leaf-sheaths are used as packing material, serving the same function as Western foam plastic and polystyrene. The entire plant but the roots is used to feed livestock. Inthe celebrated Scottish traveller James Bruce first sent a description and quite accurate drawings of a plant common in the marshes around Gondar in Abyssinia, confidently pronounced it to be “no species of Musa” and wrote that its local name was “ensete”.
In the British Consul at Mussowah sent some seeds to Kew Gardensmentioning that their native name was ansett.
Kew, quite understandably, did not make the connection, especially as they had never before seen such seeds. However, when the seeds had germinated and the plants had rapidly gained size, their relationship to the true banana became pproduction.
Bruce also discussed the plant’s place in the mythology of Egypt and pointed out that some Egyptian statue carvings depict the goddess Isis sitting among the leaves of what was thought to be a banana plant, a plant native to Southeast Asia and not known in Ancient Egypt.
Sir John Kirk felt that in habit Ensete livingstonianum is indistinguishable from E. The most common pest that threatens enset is caused by the Cataenococcus enset which is a root mealybug.
The Cataenococcus enset feeds on the roots and corm of enser enset plant which leads to slower growth and easier uprooting. Even though enset can be infested at all age stages, the highest risk is between the second or fourth growth year.
First, the larvae can crawl short distances  as adults mealybugs tend to move only after being disturbed. In return, they feed on the mealybug honeydew. Third, flooding events can transport the mealybug over longer distances and reach enset plants.
However, the main transport vectors are unclean working tools and the usage of already infected suckers. Other pests include nematodesspider mitesaphidsmole ratsporcupines and wild pigs. The latter erode the corm and pseudostem.
The nematode infestation leads to the easy uprooting of the affected plants. Prroduction rotation can counteract high nematode infestations. The enset plant can be subject to multiple diseases that threaten its use in agriculture. Other diseases have been observed such as Okka and Woqa which occur respectively in case of severe drought and in situations of too much water in the soil which causes the proliferation of bacteria. These problems can be solved by either watering the field when drought is present or by draining the soil to avoid too much water.
Another disease can strike enset even though it has been more observed on Banana plants Musacea. This disease is caused by Mycospharella spp.
Enset cultivation in Ethiopia is reported to be 10, years old. Enset-planting complex is one of the four farming systems of Ethiopia together with pastoralism, shifting cultivation and the seed-farming complex. They mainly live in the densely populated highlands of south, southwest Ethiopia. The plant is very important for food security because it is quite resistant to droughts growth only stops for a short time and it can be harvested at any development stage.
This is mainly because of a decrease of fertilization through manure and an increase in demand, especially during droughts. At such times, enset becomes the only resource available. Gender roles in enset cultivation are of high importance,  as a strong division of work exists: Men are banned from the field during this process.
Different studies state the importance of women’s knowledge on the different crop varieties. Women are more likely to precisely recognize the different varieties of the plant than men. Another important aspect in which gender plays a role is in the classification of enset varieties. Indeed, they differentiate “male” varieties from “female” varieties, according to the preferences of men and women who harvest them.
The above-mentioned aspects prodiction that, enset systems are related to gender in many ways from their management and tasks repartition in the household to varieties classification. In Ethiopia, over enset varieties have been recorded  which is important for agro- and biodiversity.
More than 11 ethnic groups with different cultures, traditions and agricultural systems inhabit the enset-growing regions. This contributes to the high number of varieties. Priduction dying out of enset varieties would hence also make disappear a part of cultural practices and linguistic terms in Ethiopia Negash et al. Richer farmers can generally afford to maintain a higher level of farm biodiversity because they have more resources such as land, labour and livestock.
Therefore, they can cultivate more varieties with differing specific characteristics. These considerations show that biodiversity advantages go beyond aspects such as resistance to climate change or diseases and nutritious diets: Plant on Mount TsetserraMozambique. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A Working List of all Plant Species”.
Retrieved 20 December RHS Latin for Gardeners. Haile Selassie I University,p. Pankhurst uses the taxononym Musa ensete. Hakluyt Society,pp. A case study on Gedeo land use” PhD dissertation: Mayp. Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 6 February Enset Ensete ventricosum corms and pseudostems. Enset Ensete ventricosum leaves. Macfarquhar — via Google Books.
Plant protection in tropical root and tuber crops. Journal of Applied Biosciences. African Crop Science Journal. Agriculture and Human Values. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal.
Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection. David Robert An Increasing Threat to Banana Cultivation”. Crop variety register issueNo. On indigenous production, genetic diversity and pfoduction ecology of enset Ensete ventricosum Welw. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension. Cheesman musaceae family diversity on-farm”.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. Ensete ventricosum Plant List: Retrieved from ” https: All articles lacking reliable references Articles lacking reliable references from September CS1: