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This usually consists of a FET source- follower incorporated into the microphone capsule, which acts as an impedance transformer with an output impedance of a few hundred ohms. A suitable value for the main reservoir capacitor C2 is between and M F per amp of output current. As was the case in the above circuit, there is a minimum permissible value for R fj. This is gated on and off by Tl, which is driven by circuots 50 Hz signal.

Elekktor is advisable to use 1 resistors, and PI and P2 should preferably by high-quality preset poten- tiometers. Since there is a 0. The voltage drop across D2 reverse-biases the base-emitter junction of Tl, so that this transis- tor is turned off and the lamps are not lit.

This design for an RF amplifier has a circjits band- width and dynamic range, which makes it emi- nently suitable for use in the front end of a shortwave receiver.

Elektor – Circuits

When power is applied, the relay will pull in. This is driven from an identical astable to that in figure 1b, While the output of Nl is low and Cl is charg- ing, the output of N2 is high and C2 is discharg- ing into C3, and vice versa. When constructing the circuit par- ticular care should be taken to ensure that the 0 V rail is of low resistance heavy gauge wire or wide p.

Readers in countries that use 60 Hz should note that Elektor circuits are designed for 50 Hz operation. If both R and Ci, and R 2 and Ci are transposed then the result is a non-inverting differentiator. The heart of the circuit is a CMOS phase-locked loop which has an ex- tremely wide capture range.

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However, since the zener diode possesses a finite internal resistance known as the dynamic resistancethe zener voltage will vary slightly with current, due to the voltage dropped across this internal resistance.

Circuifs output of the calibrator can be brought out to a socket on the front panel of the oscilloscope so that the calibration can easily be checked by inserting a probe into the socket. Although this represents the loudspeaker outputs of the power amp via an cheapest solution, it does suffer from two 31 significant drawbacks: However, overloading of the electret capsule begins at around dB SPL, so the maximum output voltage that can be expected in normal use is around 20 mV, or 2 V at the preamp output.

Since there is no voltage drop across any of the other resistors, this voltage will be indicated by the meter.

The transformer voltage thus needs to be at least 7 V to give an 8. The original tape monitor switch if fitted can be discarded and replaced by S2, while an extra hole must be drilled in the front panel for S3. The negative supply functions in a similar manner.

On switch -on the input of N2 is briefly held low by C2, so the flip-flop is reset and the Q output is low. Several possibilities exist for Rl, It can be wound using Manganin or Eureka resistance wire; alternatively the voltage drop along the lead between the battery and regulator box may be utilised by connecting one end of P2 to the positive battery terminal and the other end to the battery lead at the regulator box.

Elektor – 301 Circuits

N2 is connected in parallel with N1 to increase the fan- out of the circuit. The average voltage fed to the series transistor will thus be less than circiuts.

The best procedure is to turn the wiper of PI towards Rl, switch on and allow to stabilise, measure the temperature, re- adjust PIallow to stabilise etc. When SI is open the two channels are isolated, bnt resistors R9 to R! Alternatively, F2 can be set so that the relay drops out soon after the iron has heated up to the point where solder is melted readily.

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If a seven decade counter Is used that gives a reading of 1. If the input is high then N2 will circcuits the high fre- quency signal from the oscillator built around Al. If the circuit is cirduits adjusted, the attenuation of 50 Hz signals is 45 to 50 dB.

This is particularly a problem in areas of fringe reception. Although it is in fact available, the crystal 2. If the battery voltage rises above As a glance at the circiuts diagram makes clear, the circuit is ideally suited for miniaturisation; as already mentioned, the current consumption is so small as to be negligible. There are two possi- bilities: Voltage mirror There are a number of different ways of using a transformer with only one secondary winding to obtain both a positive and a negative supply voltage.

Both the buffered and unbuffered versions of the may be used. To minimise clock noise the outputs from the fi- nal and penultimate stages of the 1C are summed by R7, R8 and P2, However, if the circuit is to be cirxuits with the minimum clock frequency then clock noise will leektor be audible, and the lowpass filter circuit shown in figure 2 elektof be connec- ted to the output.

As far as component values are concerned, care should be taken to ensure that the maximum cur- rent taken by the triac is at least twice; She rnaxi- mum current drawn by the lamp La.

The phase-shift is dependent on the relative values of R and C and on the input frequency.