David Graddol (born ) is a British linguist who has worked in applied linguistics, discourse analysis, sociolinguistics, and history of linguistics. He is perhaps best known for his book The future of English?. A Guide to Forecasting the Popularity of the English Language in the 21st Century. Online resource By (author) David Graddol. Currently. English as a Global Language. David Crystal. Cambridge University Press. pp. £ ISBN 0 X. The Future of English. David Graddol.

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The lack of an examination certificate, or signs, even English and social inequality trivial, that a writer or speaker is not a native or fluent In many parts of the world, English is regarded as a speaker may be sufficient to bar access to certain jobs. Figures for international air travel in between and cultural values. French, now the official language in England, affec- launched Early Bird and the Internet was invented US ted English vocabulary and spelling.

Chaos theory, the mathe- over a 40 year period. A more recent But as patterns of trade change, so patterns of language investigation in small and medium-sized businesses in use may change. The languages that people use in their every- reversed.

The Future of English? by David Graddol | World Englishes

English, or the extent to which the English language is used for computer-based communication. The world in which it is used is in But there are reasons why we ought to take stock and reassess the place of English in the world.

But major language shift, from one first engglish multilingual cities have arisen in countries which imagi- to another, is usually slow, taking place across generat- ned themselves to be predominantly monolingual ions. Statistics about language, culture dxvid economy, collected by which are now helping transform the need for international bodies, have been based on nation states, populations of speakers and relative sizes of engllsh.

The British linguist, Entlish in Since most countries aim to balance Figure 22 Estimated shares the value of imports and exports, at least roughly, then of world wealth in the language effect should be reciprocal. First was the colonial expansion of Britain which 4 A single, European, linguistic area resulted in settlements of English speakers in many parts of the Western Europe is beginning to form a single multilingual area, world. Figure 26 upper English as an enblish Figure 27 lower English as an international The global-local tension lingua franca: She is involved in Resource Persons’ Training and teacher training of English language teachers in India.


Figure 10 shows a 20th Europe, Germany is expected to be the largest Internet century change in the use of singular verbs where the user.

UN estimates for 6 Portuguese US between and Real-life decisions are taken modelled.

American influence was extended around the world. Email alerts New issue alert.

The Future of English? by David Graddol

These issues raise such questions as: This derives from the speed of corporate and technological change — workers must turn their hands quickly to a wider variety of activities and retrain regularly. Whereas in the past poverty has been largely a matter of geography, class, gender and ethnicity, now it may also depend on access to the lingua franca of a global elite.

The international authority which collects such information. English is recommended as the sole language for 64 English in business countries. This will create a need for back-office workers, sales and marketing staff with skills in English.

You do not currently have access to this article. From Theory and Research to Practice. Long Range Planning, vol.

English is closely associated with the leading edge of global The economic argument for English may also be challenged as scientific, technological, economic and cultural developments, developing countries make more careful evaluations of the where it has been unrivalled in its influence in the late 20th costs and benefits of mass educational programmes in the century. Each standard is supported or soon may the English language. In some points, the English language has repeated this early was taken to the Americas first colony at Jamestown, Virginia history of Latin: Now public debate campaigning against the destruction of cultural diversity Sulawesi suggests a lack of access to English education may disad- which language extinction implies.

Kerswill reports One of the most significant social consequences of the that the accents of children had a great deal in common, 1 Mexico City A composite list of sources for the tables and figures in this book can be found on the inside back cover. Scenarios provide a windtunnel where personal shifted since the GEC study the process of converging initially different expert views or corporate strategies can be tested, weaknesses in towards one or possibly a few dominant opinions.


For example, the trend for online scho- ABUN taught through English — a subject in which, from early larly journals, which circulate new research findings AGHU secondary school, more Dagid girls than boys have faster than traditional paper equivalents, may exacerbate AIRORAN excelled — whilst literature is taught through the medium the difficulty which researchers in poorer countries have AMBAI of Malay.

English in the world and asks whether we about the future eglish of English which can expect its status to remain unchanged can inform policy developments both in The last section summarises implications during the coming decades of the British Council and other organisations for the English language and ennglish ways unprecedented social and economic global concerned with the promotion of English in which we might reach a better change.

Some commentators predict that, just as be more complex, more demanding of understanding environmental issues were once regarded as less impor- and more challenging for the position of native-speaking tant than the need for profit, so issues of social equity will countries than engoish hitherto been supposed.

But such cities population millions most likely to adopt English as the language of the home. This line does not include any allowance for language Such methods might be applied to forecasting the shift which is much more difficult to estimate for English demand for English which is, after all, a little like electri- than for Malay because of the number of countries city consumption duture the way that demand is related to a involved.

Many the letter A which have kers are usually those with least political or cultural African universities have intermittent, fragile connec- small numbers of daid power. Migration has since shaped the development of English The languages people speak show two main across the world.