Kathryn M. Connor, M.D.,n and Jonathan R.T. Davidson, M.D. Resilience scale (CD-RISC) comprises of 25 items, each rated on a 5-point scale. (0–4), with. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was created to address aspects of resilience and for use in clinical practice. Resilience is considered as the. We describe a new rating scale to assess resilience. The Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC) comprises of 25 items, each rated on a.

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They deleted items that, theoretically, would make sense to include in a measure of resilience but that did not carry enough statistical weight to still be included e. In light of these concerns, the authors worked to establish the factor structure of the CD-RISC using a more systematic approach. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

This particular population often experiences unique trauma and stressors compared to the general population, such as combat exposure. Positive youth development in the United States: The reliability, validity, and factor analytic structure of the scale were evaluated, and reference scores for study samples were calculated.

Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC).

Existing scales of resilience were considered inadequate because they lacked generalizability. Kobasa [2] and M. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20 6 The authors recognize that this could be considered an issue since the concept of resilience is often only considered relevant when related to the experience of trauma. However, the authors explain that resilience can be applied to more moderate levels of stress.

For example, the samples used in this study to evaluate the psychometric properties of the item CD-RISC did not include a clinical sample or a sample of individuals who had experienced high levels of trauma.


Depression and Anxiety, 26, — Psychological resilience and postdeployment social support protect against traumatic stress and depressive symptoms in soldiers returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

The authors drew inspiration for the scale’s content from the work of previous researchers of hardiness, most notably S.

For example, a behavior that is considered normal in one culture could be perceived as completely abnormal in another, simply due to differences in how this behavior is perceived. They used exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to justify these deletions. The individual items are as follows table adapted from Xd-risc and Davidson [1]:.

Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC).

Cross-cultural validity of the Connor-Davidson Scale: Additionally, they hypothesized that postdeployment social support would mediate the relationship between PTSD and depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning. Since resilience is most often associated with the experience of trauma, exploring the concept within the military population has become a popular topic of interest.

Factor analysis of the original scale produced five factors: The authors also cite problems with using retrospective self-report to collect data which, in this case, was unavoidable and suggest that a resilience measure that does not rely on self-report should be created. Therefore, the concept of resilience and the item CD-RISC measure can be applied to the general population, not just those who have experienced trauma.

Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale

Lower levels of unit support connor-davidon postdeployment social support were associated with higher levels of PTSD and depressive symptoms and lower levels of resilience and psychosocial functioning. Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorders.

A means of testing human resilience. A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1 1 These groups included a community sample, primary care outpatients, general psychiatric outpatients, a clinical trial of generalized anxiety disorderand two clinical trials of PTSD.

Combat exposure includes engaging in enemy fire, witnessing the injury or death of another person, or being in danger oneself. Improvement in CD-RISC score was noted in proportion to overall clinical global improvement, with greatest increase noted in subjects with the highest global improvement and deterioration in CD-RISC score in those with minimal or no global improvement.


Because of this, the conclusions drawn cannot be applied to these populations. Psychiatry Investigation, 7, Resilience may be viewed as a measure of stress coping ability and, as such, could be an important target of treatment in anxiety, depression, and stress reactions. Resilience in organ transplantation: The findings supported both of these hypotheses. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale among Chinese adolescents.

Retrieved from ” https: The scale demonstrated good psychometric properties and scwle analysis yielded five factors. There were limitations to this analysis.

Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale – Wikipedia

Data from Japanese population. Journal of Psychological Assessment, 29 5 Resilience as a predictor for emotional response to the diagnosis and surgery in breast cancer patients. An inquiry into hardiness. Sensitivity to treatment effects was examined in subjects from the PTSD clinical trials.

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 9, Resilieence and predictors of resilience among community-dwelling older women. Connor and Davidson recognized the limitations of the CD-RISC, citing lack of validation against objective measures of resilience, the complications of defining resilience in relation to the measure i. In order for a measure connor-davidon demonstrate good construct validity, it needs to be based on a complex, detailed theoretical construct i. History, efficacy and links to moral and character education.

Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71 7 Views Read Edit View history.