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Therefore, to interpret our results, we have to consider that we possibly overestimated deer densities at the higher elevations because pellet decay rates there are likely lower. National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark.
Density of red and roe deer and their distribution in relation to different habitat characteristics in a floodplain forest. The carcases are destroyed and do not enter bunsesjagdgesetz food bundesjagegesetz at any level, least of all the commercial — thus zero compensation. Wissenschaftliche Schriftenreihe Nationalparkverwaltung Bayerischer Wald; The lowest red deer pellet group density was at m and densities were higher at lower and higher elevations.
We have shown that both data sets identified similar core areas of geese occurrence.
Models where the zero inflation was modelled with country and national park, with or without interaction term, did not converge. Short and long term bird migration patterns may also affect trend estimates, e.
Das Jagdrecht in N R W
One of the crucial points influencing monitoring of waterfowl is the relocation of bigger flocks as a result of disturbance, e. In general, the number of survey sites increased during the time period analysed ranging between 77 and Table 1. The influence of the national parks on roe deer winter distribution was even negative instead of the expected positive effect, although the non-intervention zone covers 89, ha.
Our fourth prediction was that red deer pellet group densities would be higher in areas with more forest cover that provide protection from hunting, and roe deer pellet group densities would be higher in areas with lower forest cover because of higher food availability.
For each species, we followed the same modelling strategy.
In line with previous studies [ 722 ], elevation had a negative effect on the probability of finding roe deer pellet groups, while the probability of finding red deer pellet groups increased both above and below m. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: To reach this objective, a state-wide monitoring system for forest regeneration has been established and hunting quotas are based on the results of this monitoring system.
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S2 File IWC data per survey site per season. Nonetheless, there are also two regions with slightly poorer correlations of IWC and bag data.
Monitoring data from two independent datasets, the International Waterbird Census IWC [ 1112 ] and hunting bag statistics [ 13 ] are available in Bavaria to assess trends in the regional populations of huntable waterbirds. Also control measures within the winter enclosures in the Bavarian Forest National Park limit the red deer density to a lower level [ 29 ].
Ecological impacts of deer overabundance. First estimation of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx abundance and density using digital cameras and capture—recapture techniques in a German national park. Data Availability All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.
Das Jagdrecht Im Freistaat Bayern
Lake Kontanz Bodensee is also situated in the southwest of this region. This region includes major waterbird areas such as the Lake Altmuehlsee and large gravel pits along the river Danube.
We also did not account for different defecation rates, which might depend on the population structure of the ungulate population and the quality of available forage [ 6465 ]. Defecation frequency in Roe deer Capreolus capreolus in relation to the accumulation rates of faecal deposits. The region South-western Bavaria is strongly influenced by the rivers Lech and Iller.
Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. When a survey site had been counted twice during a weekend we used the maximum numbers counted during this time. Received Sep 11; Accepted Jan The analysis of the spatial distribution data over the year period demonstrates the strength of bag data in that these were able to detect newly established goose sites earlier than the IWC in areas where hunting is not restricted.
Having two independent datasets for one species is an outstanding example of a long-term citizen science based monitoring program, but data should still be scrutinized for their viability [ 20 — 22 ].
Bundesjagdgesetz : Marcus Schuck :
Thus, methods must be established to assure monitoring is effective and minimises bias and error [ 42 ]. We hope our analysis improve the trust in what you do. Supporting Information S1 File Bag data per administrative district per season. As European sedentary populations of Greylag goose are mostly hunted and bag data is to bundesjagsgesetz extent available [ 5859 ], these may serve as an indicator for trends within the sedentary populations.