Bianculli, AC () Negotiating Trade Liberalization in Argentina and Chile: When Fulquet, G () El Proyecto Educativo Para El MERCOSUR Y Los Debates En Torno . Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. . Journals A-Z. editing, and Michelle Furman for her excellent design work. Joseph S. Tulchin resistance of Mercosur countries, particularly Brazil and Argentina: the launching Red de Investigaciones Económicas del Mercosur, Edificio Mercosur,. Piso 3. Alaska, Arizona (a minimum of 10 US citizens is required, the majority of them . Tucson: University of Arizona Press. “Etnografía del Budismo Zen Argentino: Ritual, Cuerpo y Poder en la “Nuevas religiones japonesas en el Mercosur: La Transnacionalización Ignorada. Montevideo: Ediciones de la Banda Oriental.
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First, the absence of commitments should not be taken as equivalent to the existence of restrictions, since a low level of commitments can reflect strategic behaviour. Argentina undertook all its commitments in financial services during the UR, meaning that it did not take part in the negotiations of the second and fifth protocols.
In the five remaining service sectors of which finance and communications stand out in terms of economic significancethe extent of the commitments was comparatively generous in terms of both coverage and depth. In addition, Chile undertook no commitments in construction and construction-related engineering and distribution services. Since border barriers are an exception and when they exist they are seldom the most relevant restriction on services tradenational officials had to review a large number of dispersed domestic regulations and understand their relevance for the issues under negotiation such as market access and national treatment.
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This suggests that strategic or reciprocity considerations, the last of which was at the centre of financial services negotiations, did not play a relevant role.
This hypothesis may be useful to understand trade policy-making in normal times, but it may shed less light during periods of stress and deep policy reform. We are very grateful to those who agreed to share their time and experience with us. The cross-country comparison of market access commitments across service sectors displays differences and similarities see Table 3.
In contrast to the GATT agreement, negotiating the GATS required close co-operation between different governmental agencies and an adequate understanding of a regime still in the making. Section reports our main qualitative findings about the major factors that shaped its content.
During this stage the task force consulted regularly with the private sector first informally and later through formal channels to identify sensibilities, barriers to access to third markets, and domestic regulations relevant to the preparation of the list of commitments.
Section draws some conclusions from the case study. Insurance services were unbound for Modes 1 and 2 market access and national treatment. In the sector of construction and construction-related engineering services all sub-sectors were bound with no restrictions except for general construction works for civil engineering, which was excluded.
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According to this view, one key factor behind trade policy formation would be the relative influence of alternative interest groups. None of the countries made commitments in the fields of education, environmental services, social and healthcare services, recreational, cultural and sporting services, and other services.
This liberalization drive was led by the Economy Ministry, headed by the architect of the economic reforms and a former Minister of Foreign Relations The GATS offers largely reflect this phenomenon. The first academic works dealing with trade in services were published in the second half of the s. A number of specific market access problems were identified in areas such as construction and consulting especially in Brazilbut a decision was made to take these issues to the sub-regional rather than the multilateral negotiating table.
Cross-border trade except for freight insurance is unbounded and the authorization of new entities is suspended however, the deregulation implemented in ended the suspension in the establishment of new insurance firms.
The GATS was regarded as something distant and unrelated to business concerns, probably increasing the discretion of national authorities. Brazil and Chile were also above the Latin American average in terms of sectoral coverage, but well below in terms of depth of commitments. Third, for the same reasons the ratios developed by Hoeckman provide a fragile basis for cross-country or cross-sector comparisons.
Mobile telephone services and PCS were bound without restrictions, but in the case of PCS the authorities retained the capacity to determine the maximum number of operators per area. First, Argentina, Brazil and Chile show uneven coverage ratio across sectors. In line with what most countries did, in Mode 4 it includes binding commitments only for senior business employees executives, managers and specialists.
Based on Berlinski y Romero If the anticipated efficiency gains do not materialize in the future, responsibility should not be assigned to the rules that govern the multilateral trading regime but to the peculiarities of the domestic policy-making process. Placing bargaining or strategic considerations in a secondary place as opposed to unilateral reforms may be justified on efficiency grounds. Third, when the sectors in which the three countries made commitments are compared, financial services shows the highest coverage ratio, followed by communications and business services.
Commitments on Market Access: In effect, during these years Argentina entered into an ambitious process of reform in which economic institutions were overhauled.
Apart from the role of domestic interest groups, multilateral trade negotiations can also be regarded as a strategic game in which governments look for reciprocal concessions.
Opinions expressed in the case studies and any errors or omissions therein are the responsibility of their authors and not of the editors of this volume or of the institutions with which they are affiliated. Most restrictions on financial services applied to cross-border trade. The reason for excluding this sector is related to domestic interest groups and, according to some of the negotiators, strategic considerations such as keeping leverage for future negotiations, including regional preferences under GATS Article V Stancanelli At first sight, the Argentine case does not seem to fit well with any of these explanations.
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Based on Berlinski and Romero Apparently, the post office authority tried unilaterally to argenrina a competitive regime for postal services in order to end the state monopoly. Construction and construction- related engineering services.
The ratio is also comparatively low in OECD countries except for environmental servicesbut still higher than the Latin American average. The elaboration of the GATS list of commitments faced many technical and information obstacles. Number of no-restriction commitments. In addition, in most sectors where Argentina made market access offers the degree of openness committed was higher than the OECD average see Table 4.
This was the third protocol, adopted in July and in force since January In effect, after the conclusion of the UR the Argentine government made commitments in the context of the negotiations for a protocol on maritime transportation, but these negotiations broke down. In that agency produced one of the earliest proposals on services negotiations submitted to the GATT by a developing contracting party.
Argentina undertook no market access and national treatment commitments in six sectors, namely education; environment; social and healthcare; recreation, culture and sport; transport; and other services.
According to some interviewed, these pressures argenrina to a certain extent because Argentina included these activities with restrictions as opposed to the original list, where no commitments were azz for insurance.
On the other hand, statistical information on services trade was scarce, unreliable and generally unsuited for providing a basis for negotiation Marchetti The number of commitments negotiated was higher than in the case of Chile and slightly higher than Brazil. Commitments on National Treatment. Recreational, cultural and sports services excluding audiovisual services.